Crystalline cement-based water repellents such as Xypex and Penetron are generally a liquid, which is brushed or sprayed. In-place cement waterproofing systems may include a cement additive, a water repellant, or a crystallized additive. 

Internal membranes are sometimes assisted by admixtures for water resistance, while external membranes are applied to the concrete surface in coatings or sealants. Since the 1980s, many building projects worldwide have used integrated, crystalline admixtures for concrete waterproofing. 

The Advantages Of Crystalline Waterproofing

Because crystalline systems for waterproofing have unique chemistry-diffuse characteristics, the correct preparation of concrete surfaces is crucial for treatment effectiveness. With crystalline waterproofing, even when the concrete is exposed to high hydrostatic pressure, the concrete is protected against the effects of water and chemicals that contain water. 

By creating a non-soluble crystal formation deep inside concrete pores and capillary lines, it permanently seals concrete against water and other fluids, even at extreme hydrostatic pressure. The new, non-soluble crystalline structure that lines the capillary tracts makes concrete waterproof. 

The Science Behind Crystalline

First, the hydrolysis of unhydrated admixture particles results in a greater volume of Calcium Hydroxide gel as the water enters the cement. Drawing parallels to similar studies presented in, it can be concluded that mechanisms involved in such reducing of the penetration of water in the cement matrix are related with various types of chemical reactions, which are well explained in; the hydrophobic crystallization, the hydrophilic crystallization, and hydrophobic characteristics. 

As mentioned above, the reactive chemical ingredients of the crystalline water repellents could be penetrated as far as 300 mm into the concrete, using water as a migrating solution, if applied as slurry mix on a cleaned, uncontaminated, previously saturated substrate. When the concrete is saturated with water before applying the crystalline waterproofing, water within the concrete does not contain waterproofing chemicals (thus, it is a lower-concentration solution). Because the crystalline waterproofing soaks into the concrete and seals pores below the surface, it stops water from permeating into the concrete before reaching the interior surface. 

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As each type of water attempts to enter your concrete, the non-soluble forms will grow to cover and seal it. These types of materials form crystals in pores and capillaries inside your concrete in order to make your concrete more water/moisture resistant. The crystallized additives react by filling microcracks, pores, and capillaries with non-soluble, needle-like crystals which can seal self-sealing hairline cracks down to 0.5mm (or 0.02 inches) in size, and can cure over years past the original build date. When applied to cement, the crystalline waterproofing CWS(tm) slurry chemically reacts with water and unhydrated cement particles to create needle-like crystals that plug the capillary pores and micro-cracks of cement and stop further water penetration. 

Waterproofing materials are designed to create a durable, physical barrier to water, to keep water out of concrete, even when subjected to considerable head pressure. More important for structures exposed to water at hydrostatic pressures, waterproofing is essential for the durability of concrete structures. To truly make cement watertight–meaning to prevent water from getting through as well as to withstand hydrostatic pressure–you can apply watertightness on either the positive (outside) side, on the negative (inside) side, or within the cement itself (an integrated system). A new kind of waterproofing is added either in a batching facility or on site, and chemically reacts inside the concrete. 

The membrane does not need to be separated from a crystalline cement-based waterproofing, no waterborne contaminants are in the cement, and no oil-based materials are left to leach into the soil. Because of their composition, cement is generally prone to damage and degradation due to the infiltration of water and chemicals. It contains unique Moisture-activated compounds which creates non-soluble crystal deposits which are formed inside of a cisternary system. 

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How Contractors Use Crystalline

Crystalline water repellent systems become integral parts of the cement matrix when applied to existing cements or added to a mixture during the course of a batch. Crystalline water repellent chemicals may be introduced to new cements as an additive, dry-shaking product, or a coating applied on a surface. There are two ways contractors can apply crystalline waterproofing systems: through a surface application, or an integrated waterproofing admixture (the crystalline product is already added to the cement mix). While crystalline waterproofing admixtures are compatible with ultraplasticizers, air-entrainment agents, water reductants, fly ash, pozzolans, and other ingredients used to enhance performance in todays concrete mixes, it is best to check with manufacturers to make sure that they are not incompatible with other elements in your cement mix, especially cement setting retardants. 

The Benefits Of Crystalline Technology Over Membrane-based Waterproof

Unlike traditional membrane-based waterproofing, which is typically labor-intensive and costly, crystalline technology lowers the installation and maintenance costs, and is easier to work with: the admixtures can come in soluble, pulverized bags which are dropped in to a cement mix at mix time. Unlike hydrophobic counterparts of crystal-based systems, crystalline systems actually use available water to grow crystals within concrete, effectively closing pathways to moisture that could harm concrete. Sika(r) WT-240P, is a powdered, formulated, crystalline-based, plant-based, penetrating, imperviousness-reducing, additive used in phreatic applications,(PRAH) which reduces concretes capacity for conducting water. The foundation for DrizorosA concrete water-resistant crystalline technologies is the comprehensive understanding of chemical and physical, structural properties of cement. 

As the water glass could be used also as a major component for making cement waterproofing agents, it provides a good waterproofing performance . The addition of water glass, in some quantity, may contribute to improve the mechanical properties of cement, since it reacts with calcium hydroxide to form hydrated calcium-silicate-hydrogen (CSH) gel, and can therefore heal cracks as well.

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Concrete surfaces must have open porous texture in order to enable transfer of the reactive crystal chemicals from coatings into the cement subsurface. The underlying Krystol(r) dormant technology then will penetrate the entire concrete, making it permanently water resistant.